Speech Sound Disorders – Articulation and Phonological Processes

What are they ?
Most children make some mistakes as they learn to say new words. A speech sound disorder occurs when mistakes continue past a certain age. Every sound has a different range of ages when the child should make the sound correctly. Speech sound disorders include problems with articulation (making sounds) and phonological processes (sound patterns).

What are some signs of an articulation disorder ?

An articulation disorder involves problems making sounds. Sounds can be substituted, left off, added or changed. These errors may make it hard for people to understand you.

Young children often make speech errors. For instance, many young children sound like they are making a “w” sound for an “r” sound (e.g., “wabbit” for “rabbit”) or may leave sounds out of words, such as “nana” for “banana.” The child may have an articulation disorder if these errors continue past the expected age.

Not all sound substitutions and omissions are speech errors. Instead, they may be related to a feature of a dialect or accent. For example, speakers of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) may use a “d” sound for a “th” sound (e.g., “dis” for “this”). This is not a speech sound disorder, but rather one of the phonological features of AAVE.

What causes speech sound disorders ?

Many speech sound disorders occur without a known cause. A child may not learn how to produce sounds correctly or may not learn the rules of speech sounds on his or her own. These children may have a problem with speech development, which does not always mean that they will simply outgrow it by themselves. Many children do develop speech sounds over time but those who do not often need the services of an SLP to learn correct speech sounds.

Some speech sound errors can result from physical problems, such as:


developmental disorders (e.g.,autism)
  • genetic syndromes (e.g., Down syndrome)
hearing loss
  • illness
  • neurological disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy)

Children who experience frequent ear infections when they were young are at risk for speech sound disorders if the ear infections were accompanied by hearing loss.

What are some signs of a phonological disorder ?

A phonological process disorder involves patterns of sound errors. For example, substituting all sounds made in the back of the mouth like “k” and “g” for those in the front of the mouth like “t” and “d” (e.g., saying “tup” for “cup” or “das” for “gas”).

Another rule of speech is that some words start with two consonants, such as broken or spoon. When children don’t follow this rule and say only one of the sounds (“boken” for broken or “poon” for spoon), it is more difficult for the listener to understand the child. While it is common for young children learning speech to leave one of the sounds out of the word, it is not expected as a child gets older. If a child continues to demonstrate such cluster reduction, he or she may have a phonological process disorder.

What we can do…..

Our Speech and Language Pathologist will assess your child by:

  • listening to your child’s speech
  • using a formal articulation test to record sound errors
  • assessing that the muscles of your child’s mouth are working correctly
  • evaluating your child’s language development to determine overall communication functioning

After assessment our speech and language Pathologist will offer intervention to:

  • improve articulation of individual sounds
  • assist your child to reduce errors in production of sound patterns.
 demonstrate how to produce the sound correctly
  • assist your child to learn and recognise which sounds are correct and incorrect
  • assist your child to practice sounds in different words (articulation therapy teaching the rules of speech to individuals to help them say words correctly (phonological treatment)